The Growth of English History

English  is  the most  popular language  among  the  other languages.  Almost  half people  in the world use English for communicative functions.  Are  you  interested  in English  too? Sure, because it is used as a universal languange. But  do you  know English  more  deeply?
Do  you  know  about  what  kinds  of English  there  are?  What  is  the  the  oldest  kind  of English  and  who is  called  the English  native  speaker  for  the  first  time?Perhaps  you  do.  Nevertheless,  I will talk about  it  in order that  it  is  beneficial  for  us who  have  not  understood  yet.
Actually,  English  was  brought  to Britain  by Germanic  invaders,  usually called  Anglo-Saxon.  English  was  spoken  by  those  people  after  they  arrived  in Britain.  English  itself  is  sometimes  called  the  old  English It was  a member  of  the West Germanic  family  of  language By  its  form  of speech  language  when  it was  brought  to Britain,  undoubtedly  mixed with  some  local  variation over  wide  areas  of North West  Europe  at  the  close  of the  Roman  period.
Attack  by Anglo-saxon raiders were  underway before  the Roman  left  Britain around  AD 410. A  late Roman  military  title  lor  the commander,  whose  task  was to  guard  the  South-east  coast was "Count of the Saxon shore,  when  the  Roman  garrison  was  withdrawn  from Britain.  However  Anglo Saxon  raids  and  settlement inevitably  increased.  lnvited or not,  the Germanic  new comers  became  increasingly assertive  from  around  AD 450 onwards.
The  encrouchment  of  the Germanic  invaders  was  not rapid  operation.  For  several generation  settlers  spread out  over  the  land  from  the South  and  East.  They  suffered  checks  several  apparently  at  the  hand  of Romano-British  warlord  called  Arthur. But  eventually  they  came  to dominate.
English  was  well  established  in  the  country  in  wealth of  spoken  form,  and  most people  could  have  a little cause  or opportunity  to write it any  way.  lt was  conclude that  English  was  not  expanded  well  in  that  time.
Then  came  the  Vikings  in about  AD  800,  raids  rapidly increase  in  size,  intensity  and duration  until  by AD 860. Viking  armies  were  staying for  several  years  that  time. By  the  late  ninth  century, Scandinavian settlement were being  established  in  the North and  East, and  the Vikings  were  transformed from raiders  into conquerors controlling  roughly  half  the land  of England.  The Viking invasion  created  some pressures  towards standardization  of English.  Yet,  although the permament  settlement  of Vikings  in England  forced  a measure  of uniformity  on the English  language,  it also introduced  further  variety, "Old Norse".  The language spoken  by the Vikings  was like English,  Germanic  language.  At first,  pure nose would have been spoken in Scandinavian  settlement  in England. No  doubt with Danish,  Norwegian,  Swedish, lceland  and  more localized variations.  In time, however the English  Viking  adopted an English  identity.
The  upheavals  of  the Viking  period  in England  had hardly  subsided  when new invasion occured. The Norman  conquest  of 1066 was  not  quite  the  devastatin even  that  it is sometime made  out  to  have  been.
The Norman  were  only four or  five generation removed  from  Viking  for bears.  Culture  in Normand and  England  were  not  entirely  dissimilar  and  at  court  level at  least  there  was  considerable  contact.  Nevertheles because of  the manner  of their  coming  and  language which  they  brought.  The Norman  had  profound  effect on English  not  least  in  ensuring  the  continued  existence and  even  the  strengthening of  dialectical  variety.
The  Normans,  in  spite  of their  Scandinavian  ancestry, spoke French.  The Normans came  to England  not  as settlers,  to mingle  with  the  native population,  but  as a master race,  to rule  and  to exploit. For  some  generations  they had  little  interest  in learning the native  language (English) and  only  a  few  gifted  or privileged English men and women  acquired Norman French,  usually  as members of Norman  households  or  in the  service of  the  Norman administration.  French  was the  language  of a small  elite. English  was  the language  of the  village  and  the  workplace, used  by  the  majority,  the ordinary  and  largely  unlettered people.  lt had  little  need  to be anything  another  local  and homely.  But  slowly, with  the weakening  of  ties  with Normandy and  French, English  came  to be  rehabilitated  as the national  language.
ln 1362,  at  a  time  of  anti-nationalistic  fervour  and  of particular  antagonism  toward French.  The  King's  speech  at the  opening  of parliament was in English  for  the  first time  in  the  same  year,  business  in  the  law courts  began to be  carrried  out  in English too.
In  the  later  part  of  the fourteenth  century, Chaucer in an East  Midland  dialect and  the "Gawain Poet"  in  the North-west  midlands  were the  forefront  of  flowering  of vernacular  literature, in  which English  was married  to borrowed  French  vocabulary  and artistic  forms.  English  was clearly  finding  favour  in high places.  Those  are  the  phase of English growth  from  Anglo Saxon  that  induced  and  created  the  old English until  the Roman period.


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